1848 - The California gold rush began when nuggets were found at Sutter's Mill.
1925 - New York City saw a total solar eclipse.
2003 - The U.S. Department of Homeland Security began operations under Tom Ridge.
1995 - The prosecution gave its opening statement at the O.J. Simpson murder trial.
1990 - Japan launched the first probe to be sent to the Moon since 1976. A small satellite was placed in lunar orbit.
1989 - Ted Bundy, the confessed serial killer, was put to death in Florida's electric chair for the 1978 kidnap-murder of 12-year-old Kimberly Leach.
1986 - The Voyager 2 space probe flew past Uranus. The probe came within 50,679 miles of the seventh planet of the solar system.
1978 - A nuclear-powered Soviet satellite plunged through Earth's atmosphere and disintegrated. The radioactive debris was scattered over parts of Canada's Northwest Territory.
1965 - Winston Churchill died at the age of 90.
1935 - Krueger Brewing Company placed the first canned beer on sale in Richmond, VA.
1924 - The Russian city of St. Petersburg was renamed Leningrad. The name has since been changed back to St. Petersburg.
1922 - Christian K. Nelson patented the Eskimo Pie.
1908 - In England, the first Boy Scout troop was organized by Robert Baden-Powell.
1899 - Humphrey O’Sullivan patented the rubber heel.